There are two main ways by which ferro-alloys are produced, by carbon combined with a suitable smelting process and metllo-thermic reduction with other metals.
The former procedure is normally associated with bulk operations whilst the latter is mainly used to focus on specialized high grade alloys with generally low carbon content.
The ferroalloys are usually classified in two groups: bulk ferroalloys (produced in large quantities in electric arc furnaces), and special ferroalloys (produced in smaller quantities, but with growing importance). Bulk ferroalloys are used in steel making and steel or iron foundries exclusively, while the use of special ferroalloys is far more varied.
However, Ferro-alloys are usually produced by the reduction of a metallic ore (generally oxide)
• by carbon with the addition of electric energy in a "Submerged Arc Furnace" (smelting process);
• or by metals (metallo-thermic reduction), usually aluminum or silicon.
The submerged arc process is a reduction smelting operation. The reactants consist of metallic ores (ferrous oxides, silicon oxides, manganese oxides, chrome oxides, etc.) and a carbon-source reducing agent, usually in the form of coke, charcoal, high- and low-volatility coal, or wood chips. Limestone may also be added as a flux material. Raw materials are crushed, sized, and, in some cases, dried, and
then conveyed to a mix house for weighing and blending.
Conveyors, buckets, skip hoists, or cars transport the processed material to hoppers above the furnace. The mix is then gravity-fed through a feed chute either continuously or intermittently, as needed. At high temperatures in the reaction zone, the carbon source reacts with metal oxides to form carbon monoxide and to reduce the ores to base metal
Smelting in an electric arc furnace is accomplished by conversion of electrical energy to heat. An alternating current applied to the electrodes cause current to flow through the charge between the electrode tips. This provides a reaction zone at temperatures up to 2000°C (3632°F). The tip of each electrode changes polarity continuously as the alternating current flows between the tips. To maintain a uniform electric load, electrode depth is continuously varied automatically by mechanical or hydraulic means.
Figure 1: Electric furnace used in ferroalloy production
Exothermic (Metallothermic) Process
The exothermic process is generally used to produce high-grade alloys with low-carbon content. The intermediate molten alloy used in the process may come directly from a submerged electric arc furnace or from another type of heating device. Silicon or aluminum combines with oxygen in the molten alloy, resulting in a sharp temperature rise and strong agitation of the molten bath.
Low- and medium-carbon content ferrochromium (FeCr) and ferromanganese (FeMn) are produced by silicon reduction. Aluminum reduction is used to produce chromium metal, ferrotitanium, ferrovanadium, and ferrocolumbium. Mixed alumino/silico thermal processing is used for producing ferromolybdenum and ferrotungsten. Although aluminum is more expensive than carbon or silicon, the products are purer. Low-carbon (LC) ferrochromium is typically produced by fusing chromium ore and lime in a furnace.
A specified amount is then placed in a ladle (ladle No. 1). A known amount of an intermediate grade ferrochromesilicon is then added to the ladle. The reaction is extremely exothermic and liberates chromium from its ore, producing LC ferrochromium and a calcium silicate slag. This slag, which still contains recoverable chromium oxide, is reacted in a second ladle (ladle No. 2) with molten high-carbon ferrochromesilicon to produce the intermediategrade ferrochromesilicon. Exothermic processes are generally carried out in open vessels and may have emissions similar to the submerged arc process for short periods while the reduction is occurring.
1. J.Kuenen: Ferroalloys production, 2.C.2 Ferroalloys production, Version EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009, p.1-7;
2. Association of European ferro-alloy producers;
3. Ferroalloy Production, 10/86, Metallurgical Industry, 12.4-3: 12.4-20; Accessed 05-2016;
4. Manganese Ferroalloys, Chuo Denki Kogyo Co.LTD, Accessed 04-2016