The combination of high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance makes titanium grades the best material choice for many critical applications.
Because the allotropic behavior of titanium allows diverse changes in microstructures by variations in thermomechanical processing, a broad range of properties and applications can be served with a minimum number of titanium grades. This is especially true for the titanium alloys with a two-phase a+ß crystal structure.
The most widely used titanium grade is the Ti-6Al-4V alpha-beta alloy. This titanium alloy is well understood and is also very tolerant of variations in fabrication operations, despite its relatively poor room-temperature shaping and forming characteristics as compared to steel and aluminum. Titanium grade Ti-6Al-4V, which has limited section size hardenability, is most commonly used in the annealed condition.
Commercially pure titanium grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 are available in bar and billet. The following titanium grades are also commonly available in bar and billet form: Ti-6Al-4V (grades 5 and 24), Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (grade 6), Ti-0.2Pd (grades 7 and 11), Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo (also known as BETA-C), Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo, Ti-8Al- 1Mo-1V, Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn, Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al (TIMETAL 10.2.3), Ti-4Al-4Mo-2Sn (IMI 550), Ti-4Al-4Mo-4Sn-0.5Si-0.1C (IMI 551), Ti-15Mo (IMI 205) and TIMETAL 100.
Titanium alloys available in casting form include commercially pure titanium grades 2, 3, 4, Ti-6Al-4V (grades 5 and 24), Ti-0.2Pd (grade 7), Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (grade 6), Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (TIMETAL 15.3), TIMETAL 1100 and Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.7Nb (IMI 834).
By application, titanium alloys can be divided into three main groups: corrosion resistant, high strength and high temperature grades. Three structural types of titanium alloys are alpha alloys, alpha-beta alloys, and beta or near-beta alloys.
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